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dc.contributor.authorPuduvalli, V. K.en
dc.contributor.authorSaito, Y.en
dc.contributor.authorXu, R.en
dc.contributor.authorKouraklis, G. P.en
dc.contributor.authorLevin, V. A.en
dc.contributor.authorKyritsis, A. P.en
dc.rightsDefault Licence-
dc.subjectAntineoplastic Agents/*pharmacologyen
dc.subjectBlotting, Westernen
dc.subjectCaspase 3en
dc.subjectCell Cycle/drug effectsen
dc.subjectCell Division/drug effectsen
dc.subjectCell Size/drug effectsen
dc.subjectDNA Fragmentationen
dc.subjectDose-Response Relationship, Drugen
dc.subjectEnzyme Activation/drug effectsen
dc.subjectFlow Cytometryen
dc.subjectIn Situ Nick-End Labelingen
dc.subjectPoly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/metabolismen
dc.subjectTumor Cells, Cultureden
dc.titleFenretinide activates caspases and induces apoptosis in gliomasen
heal.type.enJournal articleen
heal.type.elΆρθρο Περιοδικούel
heal.recordProviderΠανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Επιστημών Υγείας. Τμήμα Ιατρικήςel
heal.abstractThe synthetic retinoid fenretinide (N-[4-hydroxyphenyl] retinamide or 4HPR) has been shown to not only inhibit cell growth but also to induce apoptosis in a variety of malignant cell lines. It is being tested presently for its potential as a chemopreventive agent against several cancers. A related retinoid, 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA), has been shown to have activity against gliomas in vitro as well as in a recent clinical study. The present study aimed at assessing the activity of fenretinide against glioma cells in vitro and comparing it with that of cRA at pharmacologically relevant doses. We hypothesized that the ability of fenretinide to induce apoptosis would make it more potent against gliomas than cRA. Four glioma cell lines (D54, U251, U87MG, and EFC-2) were treated with fenretinide (1-100 microM) and showed dose- and time-dependent induction of cell death. At pharmacologically relevant doses, fenretinide was more active against glioma cells than cRA because of its ability to induce apoptosis. Flow cytometric studies using D54 cells demonstrated no significant changes in the cell cycle distribution compared with untreated control, but a sub-G1 fraction consistent with apoptosis was detected. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay indicated that the apoptotic fraction was cell cycle nonspecific. Fenretinide treatment resulted in cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase, indicating an activation of the caspase 3. Immunofluorescence studies using the nuclear stain 4',6-diamidine-2'-phenylindole dihydrochloride showed nuclear condensation and an apoptotic morphology. Hence, this study demonstrates that, at clinically relevant doses, fenretinide is a potent inducer of apoptosis in gliomas acting via the caspase pathway. We also show that at clinically achievable doses, fenretinide has more activity against gliomas than comparable doses of cRA. The favorable side effect profile seen in previous clinical studies and the in vitro activity against gliomas demonstrated in this study suggest that fenretinide could be a promising therapeutic agent against gliomas.en
heal.journalNameClin Cancer Resen
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