Hydroxyapatite biomaterials, produced from cuttlefish bone via hydrothermal transformation, for application in tissue engineering and drug delivery systems (Master thesis)

Λαγοπάτη, Νεφέλη


An increase in life expectancy due to improvements in healthcare, in parallel with high percentage of injures, because of traffic accidents and sport activities, has emerged as the primary reasons for the replacements of lost, infected, and damaged bones. Combined with tissue engineering, this is an area of great interest to regenerative medicine. In orthopedics, novel scaffolds development, providing a suitable environment that can favor osteoinduction for the newly formed bone is needed. Composite porous hydrogels, based on alginic acid and chitosan with the dispersed phase from powders of bioceramics, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), are recently developed for this reason. This study was structured and written in order to present an integrated way of the development of biomaterials, based on hydroxyapatite (HA) of natural origin. Τhe extensive review of the literature, regarding to the development of biomaterials, which can be reliably utilized in orthopedics and maxillofacial surgery was obligatory in order to highlight the interdisciplinary nature of this research object, and the timelessness of its importance. In this way, it was advisable the form of this dissertation to simulate the form of a review article, meaning that the introduction and the experimental part are not separately presented. Natural bone can be considered as a composite nanomaterial based on HA and collagen, as the main compound of the organic polymeric phase. This structure allows to bone behaving as a bioceramic with important elasticity. Artificially, a structure which could resemble the microstructure and the texture of the natural bone, would be a scaffold with the potential to release drugs, or cells, or growth factors or activate appropriate biological, physical and chemical stimuli, to induce hard tissue regeneration. The selection of a porous composite bioactive biomaterial favors the penetration of biological liquids and blood cells, post implantation of the scaffold. Angiogenesis and bone tissue formation are following. In this work, a reverse and a novel approach, of the design and production of 3D HA-scaffold enriched with two popular hydrogels, based on alginic acid and chitosan are reported. The first method includes the hydrogel penetration into a porous HA and the second approaches the development of this scaffold from a biomimetic point of view, namely the formation of ΗΑ (nano) particles inside a polymeric matrix made of the previously mentioned hydrogels. This reinforcement of HA with alginate or chitosan hydrogels, through infiltration method gives to the final product proper mechanical potential for hard tissue regeneration. More specifically, HA is usually obtained from aragonite from cuttlefish bones (CB) from the species Sepia Officinalis and via hydrothermal transformation. The worldwide availability and the low cost of cuttlefish bone, along with their biological-natural origin are attractive features making them highly sorted material used in the preparation of advanced scaffolds containing HA for applications in biomedicine. These advanced scaffolds are easily handled by the surgeon while maintaining their porous structure during the implantation process to promote the regeneration of newly formed bone tissue. In particular, once such a scaffold is implanted in an area where the bone tissue is lost, biological liquids will be able to penetrate into the pores of the lyophilized composite scaffold. The polymeric matrix will then be dissolved and the remaining HA, or its precursor compounds, which will eventually transform into HA, will promote osteoinduction. In vitro and in vivo studies of the developed biomaterials and scaffolds are required. Also, the prospects of these materials are presented with regard to the possible development of drug delivery systems. The optimization of the fabrication technique is required to unravel the endless potential of biomaterials, shedding light on this promising interdisciplinary field, which includes both tissue engineering and drug delivery system approaches.
Institution and School/Department of submitter: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Πολυτεχνική Σχολή. Τμήμα Μηχανικών Επιστήμης Υλικών
Subject classification: Βιοϋλικά
Keywords: Υδροξυαπατίτης (HA),Υδροθερμικός μετασχηματισμός,Εσωτερικό κέλυφος σουπιάς,Ικριώματα ιστομηχανικής,Βιομιμητική σύνθεση,Υδροπηκτώματα,Αλγινικό οξύ,Χιτοζάνη,Οστικά ελλείμματα,Οστικά μοσχεύματα,Οστεοβλάστες,Πειραματόζωα,In vitro,In vivo,Hydroxyapatite (HA),Hydrothremal transformation,Cuttlefishbone,Tissue engineering scaffolds,Biomimetic synthesis,Hydrogels,Alginate,Chitosan,Bone deficiencies,Boen implants,Osteoblasts,Lab animals
URI: http://olympias.lib.uoi.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/29292
Appears in Collections:Διατριβές Μεταπτυχιακής Έρευνας (Masters)

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