Worldwide occurrence and effects of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment: a review (Journal article)

Konstantinou, I. K./ Albanis, T. A.

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dc.contributor.authorKonstantinou, I. K.en
dc.contributor.authorAlbanis, T. A.en
dc.rightsDefault Licence-
dc.subjectantifouling biocidesen
dc.subjectaquatic environmenten
dc.subjectcompound irgarol 1051en
dc.subjectsolid-phase extractionen
dc.subjectperformance liquid-chromatographyen
dc.subjectionization mass-spectrometryen
dc.subjectmarina water samplesen
dc.subjectcoastal watersen
dc.subjectagent irgarol-1051en
dc.subjectseasonal distributionen
dc.titleWorldwide occurrence and effects of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment: a reviewen
heal.type.enJournal articleen
heal.type.elΆρθρο Περιοδικούel
heal.identifier.primaryDoi 10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00176-4-
heal.identifier.secondary<Go to ISI>://000220204900012-
heal.recordProviderΠανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών. Τμήμα Χημείαςel
heal.abstractOrganic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to organotin compounds in antifouling products, after restrictions imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in 1987. Replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. This ban has led to an increase in alternative coating products containing the above biocides. The most commonly used biocides in antifouling paints are: Irgarol 1051, diuron, Sea-nine 211, dichlofluanid, chlorothalonil, zinc pyrithione, TCMS (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl) pyridine, TCMTB [2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole], and zineb. Since 1993, several studies have demonstrated the presence of these biocides in European coastal environment as a result of their increased use. More recently, the presence of these biocides was also revealed in waters from Japan, United States, Singapore, Australia and Bermuda. This paper reviews the currently available data on the occurrence of these biocides in the aquatic environment. Some data dealing with the environmental fate, partitioning, behaviour and risk assessment of antifouling paint booster biocides are also reported in order to discuss the detected levels of contamination. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.en
heal.journalNameEnvironment Internationalen
heal.journalTypepeer reviewed-
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα σε επιστημονικά περιοδικά ( Ανοικτά)

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