Σωματίδια PM10 & PM2.5 στην Ευρώπη (Doctoral thesis)
The aim of this project was to define local and regional sources of PM10 and PM2.5 at 20 major European cities, while an estimation of health risks associated with air pollution levels in those areas was also attempted, by the use of air quality indexes. The selection of those cities was based at the availability of air pollution data, especially for PM2.5. The European continent was divided in five main sectors: Southern Europe, North-Northeastern Europe, Central Europe, Southeastern Europe and Northwest Europe, in order to facilitate the identification of possible common air pollution characteristics, among each sector’s cities. At first Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated among the daily concentrations of particulates and gaseous air pollutants: NO2, SO2, CO and O3, while the application of primal component analysis (PCA) defined components corresponding in specific types of air pollution. Gaseous air pollutants were used as indicators of the emission sources. Possible seasonal variations of PM2.5/PM10 daily ratio values were also used, as markers of PM sources influencing particulate size distribution. By the computation with HYSPLIT model of air mass trajectories that were then divided in clusters according to their origination and length, the localization of distant aerosol sources affecting PM levels in Europe was able to be performed. Finally air quality indexes that combine the levels of particulates and gaseous air pollutants were applied, in order to achieve a clear image of the atmosphere’s status for human exposure at each area that is under study. In general fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) particle levels were intensively correlated, thus common sources are suggested. Combustion originated gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2, SO2) were strongly associated to particulates, primarily at central areas that are severely affected by vehicular emissions, thus traffic was defined as a major contributor to the total production of PM. At monitoring stations that are situated inside urban parks or are neighbouring to large rural areas and forests, daily PM2.5/PM10 ratio presented its minimum values during warm periods. The reduction of fine particles proportion in the total PM10 mass was attributed to the higher volume of airborne coarse PM during spring and summer, due to dust resuspension and also due to emissions from natural sources (pollen, seeds). The principal exogenous sources of aerosols affecting the southern part of Europe were localized at Northwest Africa and the Mediterranean, due to the transportation of dust from the Sahara Desert and sea spray respectively. Regional sources influencing PM10 levels at Central and North-Northeast Europe were identified mainly within Germany, France, Poland and Northern Italy, where major industrial facilities, rural areas and forests exist. The Northwest part of Europe receives large quantities of airborne particulates from Germany, France and the United Kingdom, while transportation of sea spray from the Northern part of the Atlantic and the North Sea is also observed. The atmosphere of cities that are situated at the Southeast part of Europe is primarily enriched by aerosols, originated from neighboring areas that extend within the Balkan Peninsula and Northern Italy. Incidents of sea spray transport from the Mediterranean and dust intrusions from the Sahara desert were found to be limited at the under study cities of Southeast Europe, and were characterized as secondary causes of episodic PM10 concentrations.
|Alternative title / Subtitle:||Τοπικές πηγές, ατμοσφαιρική μεταφορά, επιπτώσεις στην ποιότητα του αέρα|
|Institution and School/Department of submitter:||Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών Τμήμα Φυσικής|
|Keywords:||Σωματίδια PM10,Σωματίδια PM2.5,Ατμοσφαιρική μεταφορά σωματιδίων,Μεσόγειος Θάλασσα,Ευρώπη,Ατμοσφαιρική ρύπανση,Ποιότητα αέρα,Λόγος PM2.5/PM10|
|Appears in Collections:||Διδακτορικές Διατριβές|
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