Survey for the occurrence of antifouling paint booster biocides in the aquatic environment of Greece (Journal article)
Sakkas, V. A./ Konstantinou, I. K./ Lambropoulou, D. A./ Albanis, T. A.
Since the restriction imposed by European Union regulations on the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on boats below 25 in in length, new terms have been introduced in the 'small boat' market. Replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of these biocides in European ports and marinas of Spain, France, Germany and the United Kingdom. An extended survey of the antifouling biocides chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, irgarol 1051 and sea-nine 211 was carried out in Greek ports and marinas of high boating activities from October 1999 to September 2000. The sampling sites were: Piraeus, Elefsina, Thessaloniki, Patras, Chalkida, Igoumenitsa, and Preveza (Aktio). The extraction of these compounds from the seawater samples was performed off-line with C-18 solid phase extraction (SPE) disks while the determination was carried out with gas chromatography coupled to electron capture (ECD), thermionic (FTD) and mass spectroscopy (MS) detectors. The concentration levels of biocides were higher during the period from April to October. This seasonal impact depends on the application time of antifouling paints and mimic trends in the seasonal distribution of biocides in other European sites.
|Institution and School/Department of submitter:||Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Θετικών Επιστημών. Τμήμα Χημείας|
|Keywords:||antifouling booster biocides,chlorothalonil,dichlofluanid,irgarol 1051,sea-nine 211,compound irgarol-1051,agent irgarol-1051,mass-spectrometry,seawater samples,coastal waters,uk,contamination,sediments,fate,organotins|
|Link:||<Go to ISI>://000178284500009|
|Appears in Collections:||Άρθρα σε επιστημονικά περιοδικά ( Ανοικτά)|
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