Οι απαρχές της πνευματικής ακμής στη Θεσσαλονίκη κατα τον 14ο αιώνα (Journal article)
Κωνσταντινίδης, Κώστας Ν.
The flowering of learning in Thessalonike during the fourteenth century is well-known and well-studied by a number of scholars, like Tafrali, Schiro, Nicol, Browning, Vakalopoulos, Laourdas and others more recently. Famous Byzantine scholars were bom or taught in Thessalonike at that time and members of the imperial family, such as the Empresses Eirene of Montferrat and Anna of Savoy, chose to live and died there. The copying of de luxe books as well as of classical texts in the scriptoria of the city is also well- documented through the surviving manuscripts. At the same time great philologists and artists were working in the second city of the Empire. In this brief study we investigate the inception of this flourishing of culture in Thesslaonike during the last third of the thirteenth century. For we know of a number of scholars who seem to have studied in Constantinople after 1261 and they later occupied high offices in the metropolis of Thessalonike. For instance the dikaiophylax George Phobenos is the author of surviving legal works: de casso and de hybobolo and of a small dictionary of legal terms. The oikonomos Demetrios Beaskos is known to have been actively engaged in hymnology and ecclesiastical music. He composed a sticheron for St. Photios, founder of the monastery of Akapniou, and he wrote the musical notation for another sticheron to St. Demetrios composed by John Staura- kios, a scholar from Thessalonike. Staurakios was chartophylax of the metropolis and he seems to have studied in the imperial school of Constantinople directed by George Akropolites in the 1260’s and early 1270’s. He was a friend and correspondent of George of Cyprus who was to occupy later the patriarchal throne (1283-89). His surviving works include an enconium and a sticheron to St. Demetrios, encomia to St. Theodora of Thessalonike and to St. Theodosia. However, the greater scholar who seems to have worked and taught in Thessalonike is John Pediasimos Pothos, who held the office of megas sakellarios of the metropolis from about 1283/84 and for nearly a quarter of a century. Pediasimos studied in Constantinople in the 1260’s first in the "Patriarchal School” under Maximos Holobolos and later under George Akropolites and he was given the distinguished office of consul of the philosophers (ύπατος rcDv φιλοσόφων) in the 1270’s. He spent a few years in Ochrid where he served as chartophylax before his transfer to Thessalonike. His surviving works show his many-sided interests which extended from ancient Greek mythology to poetry and higher mathematics, philosophy and law. He wrote a brief work on the labours of Hercules and an allegorical one on the nine Muses. He also wrote scholia on pseudo-Hesiod’s Aspis and on Theocrito’s Syrinx, as well as commentaries on Aristotle’s Analytica Priora and Posteriora and on the De Interpretatione, a work on geometry, another on music, an essay on the seven planets and scholia on Cleomedes. He even wrote a medical treatise: περί έπταμήνων καί έννεαμήνων, and a legal work on the permissible and forbidden marriages. Pediasimos’ death ca. 1310/14 is indicated in an unpublished letter of Constantine Akropolites addressed probably to the metropolitan of Thessalonike. AH these scholars acted under the protection of the metropolitans of Thessalonike and we know of an intellectual bishop who occupied the see of that city from ca. 1289 to 1299. namely Iakobos, who was before abbot of the monastery of Great Laura on Mt. Athos. This growing cultural centre indubitably attracted scholars, most of whom had received their education in Constantinople or had kept in close relation with intellectuals in the capital. The presence of these scholars in Thessalonike and especially John Pediasimos during the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries provide a clearer picture of the intellectual background which led to the subsequent flourishing of learning in the fourteenth century. It is in this intellectually rich milieu that scholars, such as Thomas Magistros and Demetrios Triklinios grew up and produced their philological works.
|Institution and School/Department of submitter:||Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Φιλοσοφική Σχολή. Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας|
|Publisher:||Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Φιλοσοφική Σχολή. Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας|
|Appears in Collections:||Τόμος 21 (1992)|
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