Κοινωνική διαστρωμάτωση στην Ελληνική κοινότητα. Αντικατοπτρισμοί στον υλικό πολιτισμό: το παράδειγμα του ενδύματος (Journal article)

Βρέλλη- Ζάχου, Μαρίνα


The purpose of this paper is to reveal the social stratification in the Greek communities on the costumes of their members. The examples that are presented concern communities which were under the rule or the protection of foreign powers, (the Venetians, the English or the Turkish) during the past centuries. Zante (in the Ionian Islands) and Athens (in mainland Greece) are the main points of reference. Some examples are also presented from the islands (Tzia, Tenos, Crete, Hydra, Spetses), and from the mainland (Leonidio of Peloponnesos, Syrrako and Metsovo of Epirus, Messogia of Attica) to indicate a wide spread of the phenomenon. These communities were beginning to become urbanized at die end of the 18th century; this fact intensified the conflict between the social roles of their members and this reflected clearly on their costumes. We distinguish the existence of three types of male and female costumes: 1. Costumes of the upper class («Nobili» or «Kotzambassides»), who used their clothes as visual symbols of their social superiority. They imitated costumes which were worn by the upper classes in West European countries or in Constantinople. 2. Costumes of the middle class (merchants, handicraftsmen, intellectuals etc.). These people started to become wealthy and sometimes well educated. In order to be up to the social level of the upper class in the community, they used to copy much of the social behaviour of this class, especially the visual symbols of its superiority, such as costumes (briefly mentioning housing and food). 3. Costumes of the lower class (stock-breeders, farmers, artisans, seamen, workers). All these had no involvement in the common, so they had no necessity to show any noble origins or an economic independence. The materials they used for their clothes were domestically made. The shapes of their costumes were different to those of the nobles. They often had distinct features of their modest origins and had to follow the strict legislation which prohibited the wearing of some kind of costumes. Since the late 19th century the economic conditions, which had improved, and the political conditions, which also had changed, permitted the lower classes to express themselves freely and to adopt civic elements in their costumes. As mentioned, the examples, which are being referred to, concern the distinct expression of the social stratification on costumes in the communities with the professional efficiencies of their members, and more so to their relationships with great urban and cultural centers abroad. In contrast to all of the above, in the communities: a) with a few members b) geographically and culturally isolated c) with a slow pace in the change of productive ways d) consciously determined to express the values and the unwritten laws, we realize that costumes of all the members of the community used to remain the same in shape and to have similar decorative motifs, without innovations or plain variations and never breaking away from the traditional aesthetic expression of the local culture. There a) sex b) age c) social status d) profession e) everyday life and celebrations f) birth, coming of age, marriage and death and g) religious beliefs were factors which influenced and defined the costumes of the members of the community.
Institution and School/Department of submitter: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Φιλοσοφική Σχολή. Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας
Keywords: -
URI: http://olympias.lib.uoi.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/6091
Publisher: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Φιλοσοφική Σχολή. Τμήμα Ιστορίας και Αρχαιολογίας
Appears in Collections:Τόμος 18 (1989)




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