Religion and poetry (Doctoral thesis)

Μακρυδήμας, Βασίλειος


In this doctoral thesis my aim is to examine the poetry, the critical work and the critical reception of Takis Papatsonis. Born in the late 19th century, he first appeared in the Greek letters at the age of 15 years old (1910). From then on up until his death (1976), Papatsonis made clear his deep wish to approach Christianity through literature. As far as his published work is concerned, Papatsonis released three poetic collections (Eklogi A΄ in 1934, Ursa Minor in 1944 and Eklogi B΄ in 1962), three books –one about the spiritual, ascetic life on Mount Athos (Askisi ston Atho, 1963), one with cultural issues (Moldovalachica tu mithu, 1965) and one dedicated to the American poet Edgar Allan Poe (O Tetraperatos Cosmos, B΄, 1976)- and two compilations of his critical work during 1927-1972 (O Tetraperatos Cosmos, A΄, 1966 and Opu in kipos, 1972). Despite all these volumes, numerous poems and several of his papers remain unknown to scholars, as they were not included in any of his collections and remained scattered in different types of newspapers and journals of the 20th century. This dissertation enriches Papatsonis’ poetic corpus and attempts to examine some of its aspects. In the first part I attempt to understand the conditions under which he developed his poetics. Papatsonis from his very beginning refused to conform with the traditional poetic norm of the early 20th century and made use of free verse in 1920, while at the same time he tried to align the morphology, expression and style of his poetry with the principles of modernism. In the second part I managed to gather a large number of Papatsonis’ critically acclaimed reviews and studies. All of these writings helped me to examine thoroughly the critical discourse he articulated from the 1910s to his death in 1976 in his attempt to clarify his views on modern greek literature of 19th and first half of the 20th century, as well as to ‘listen’ to the historical changes that influenced its development. Thanks to his broad education, critical sensitivity and insight, Papatsonis expressed his opinions about almost all of the issues of greek literary life, from the ‘hot’ issue of the greek diglossia and the conflict between the admirers of the vernacular language and the archaists to the controversial, as a result of its political attributes, question of ‘ellinikotita’ (greekness) in art. The religious element is never absent from Papatsonis’ vision, and it is very interesting to follow the way in which this aspect is consistent with his thought. His reflection on Christianity plays a crucial role in all of his texts, regardless their main topic. In other words, Papatsonis’ criticism is largely triggered by a Christian ars poetica. Finally, in the third part, I attempt a systematic examination of Papatsonis’ reception by the critics from the second decade of 20th century to the present. In fact, as Papatsonis’ poetry was full of religious components, it often provoked feelings of awkwardness to his critics. His idiosyncratic Christian identity, moving between Catholicism and Orthodoxy, as well as his stormy relationship with the core of “the generation of the 30’s” (George Seferis, Andreas Karantonis and George Theotokas) seemed to have been obstacles to the recognition of his modernism. The latter were vastly attributed to Seferis’ collection Strofi (1931), which made sensation among the critics of the time and was recorded in modern greek letters as the kick-off of greek modernism, the advent of which was formalized with Seferis’ poetic synthesis Mithistorima (1935), written in free verse. This perception prevailed until the 1970s, when Alexander Argiriou laid the foundations for the discovery of the innovative dimensions of Papatsonis’ poetry, which are still being examined by the scholars until today.
Alternative title / Subtitle: η περίπτωση του Τ. Κ. Παπατσώνη
the case of T. C. Papatsonis
Institution and School/Department of submitter: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Φιλοσοφική Σχολή. Τμήμα Φιλολογίας
Subject classification: Θρησκευτική ποίηση
Keywords: Παπατσώνης Τάκης,Θρησκευτική ποίηση,Κριτική,Πρόσληψη,Ελληνικός λογοτεχνικός μοντερνισμός,Χριστιανισμός,Papatsonis Takis,Religious poetry,Criticism,Critical reception,Modernism in greek literature
URI: http://olympias.lib.uoi.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/29225
Item type: doctoralThesis
Subject classification: Θρησκευτική ποίηση
Submission Date: 2018-11-27T10:06:47Z
Item language: el
Item access scheme: free
Institution and School/Department of submitter: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Φιλοσοφική Σχολή. Τμήμα Φιλολογίας
Publication date: 2018
Bibliographic citation: Βιβλιογραφία: σ. 626-681
Abstract: Το ερευνητικό πεδίο της υπό εκπόνηση διατριβής είναι εστιασμένο στην περίπτωση του ποιητή και κριτικού Τάκη Παπατσώνη. Γεννημένος στα τέλη του 19ου αι. (1895)1 παρουσιάστηκε από πολύ νωρίς στα ελληνικά γράμματα (1910), ξεφεύγοντας συχνά από τον αυστηρό φιλολογικό χώρο για να προσεγγίσει μέσα από τη λογοτεχνική του ιδιότητα ζητήματα της χριστιανικής εμπειρίας. Πολυάριθμα ποιήματα του Παπατσώνη βρίσκονται διεσπαρμένα στον περιοδικό Τύπο του 20ού αι., καθώς δεν περιλήφθηκαν σε κάποια από τις συλλογές του - Εκλογή Α΄ (1934), Ursa Minor (1944), Εκλογή Β΄ (1962). Το ίδιο ισχύει και για τα πεζά κείμενά του. Παρά το γεγονός ότι ο ίδιος δημοσίευσε, εκτός από άλλα τρία αυτοτελή έργα (Άσκηση στον Άθω, 1963, Μολδοβαλαχικά του μύθου, 1965, Ο Τετραπέρατος Κόσμος, Β΄, 1976), δύο τόμους δοκιμίων (Ο Τετραπέρατος Κόσμος, Α΄, 1966, Όπου ην κήπος, 1972), οι τελευταίοι απαρτίζουν μόνο το ήμισυ των κειμένων με τα οποία ο ποιητής συμμετείχε σε συζητήσεις της ελληνικής κριτικής. Στη διατριβή αυτή εμπλουτίζεται το ποιητικό, κριτικό και δοκιμιακό corpus του Παπατσώνη και επιχειρείται η εξέταση ορισμένων πτυχών του. Στο πρώτο μέρος διερευνώνται οι συνθήκες διαμόρφωσης της ποιητικής του, κάτω από τις οποίες ο ίδιος από νωρίς απομακρύνθηκε από τον κυρίαρχο παραδοσιακό κανόνα των αρχών του 20ού αιώνα και εισήγαγε το 1920 τον ελεύθερο στίχο, ευθυγραμμίζοντας τις μορφολογικές, εκφραστικές και υφολογικές προϋποθέσεις του ποιητικού λόγου με τα προτάγματα του μοντερνισμού. Στο δεύτερο μέρος μελετώνται πλήθος αθησαύριστων κριτικών και μελετών του ποιητή. Βασικός σκοπός είναι η ενδελεχής εξέταση του κριτικού λόγου που άρθρωσε από τη δεκαετία του 1910 μέχρι τον θάνατό του, το 1976, προκειμένου να αποκρυσταλλωθούν οι απόψεις του για την παλαιότερη και σύγχρονή του λογοτεχνική κίνηση, όπως και να αναδειχθεί η προσπάθειά του να αφουγκραστεί τις ιστορικές εξελίξεις που επηρέασαν την ανάπτυξη της λογοτεχνίας κατά τον 19ο αιώνα και τις αρχές του 20ού. Με την πλατιά παιδεία, την κριτική ευαισθησία και την οξυδέρκειά του ο Παπατσώνης τοποθετήθηκε επί όλων σχεδόν των ζητημάτων που απασχόλησαν την ελληνική λογοτεχνική ζωή, από το φλέγον θέμα του γλωσσικού μέχρι το διαφιλονικούμενο, σε όλα τα πολιτικά φάσματα, ζήτημα της «ελληνικότητας» στην τέχνη. Το θρησκευτικό στοιχείο δεν απουσιάζει ποτέ από τον προβληματισμό του και είναι πολύ ενδιαφέρουσα η παρακολούθηση του τρόπου με τον οποίο αυτό συνυφαίνεται σταθερά με τη σκέψη του. Στο πλούσιο θεματικό ρεπερτόριο που συνθέτουν όλα τα κείμενά του μαζί, το χριστιανικό πρόταγμα έχει τον πρώτο λόγο, καθώς τα κριτικά του ανακλαστικά ενεργοποιούνται σε μεγάλο βαθμό βάσει μιας χριστιανικής artis poeticae. Τέλος, στο τρίτο μέρος εξετάζεται συστηματικά το πλαίσιο της πρόσληψης του Παπατσώνη από τους κριτικούς, οι οποίοι συχνά τον αντιμετώπισαν με ιδιαίτερη αμηχανία, κυρίως εξαιτίας της χριστιανικότητάς του. Η θρησκευτική ταυτότητα του ποιητή, κινούμενη μεταξύ Καθολικισμού και Ορθοδοξίας, καθώς και η θυελλώδης σχέση του με τον πυρήνα της «γενιάς του ʼ30» (Γιώργο Σεφέρη, Αντρέα Καραντώνη και Γιώργο Θεοτοκά) φαίνεται να αποτέλεσαν τροχοπέδη για την αναγνώριση των μοντερνιστικών του πρωτείων. Τα πρωτεία αυτά η κριτική απέδωσε στον Σεφέρη και τη Στροφή (1931), η οποία προκάλεσε ιδιαίτερη αίσθηση και εγγράφηκε στα νεοελληνικά γράμματα ως το εναρκτήριο λάκτισμα του εγχώριου μοντερνισμού, η έλευση του οποίου επισημοποιήθηκε με το ελευθερόστιχο Μυθιστόρημα (1935). Η αντίληψη αυτή επικράτησε μέχρι τη δεκαετία του 1970, οπότε και ο Αλέξανδρος Αργυρίου έθεσε τις βάσεις για την ανίχνευση των καινοτόμων εκφάνσεων της παπατσωνικής ποίησης, ανίχνευση που συνεχίζεται από τους μελετητές μέχρι τις μέρες μας.
In this doctoral thesis my aim is to examine the poetry, the critical work and the critical reception of Takis Papatsonis. Born in the late 19th century, he first appeared in the Greek letters at the age of 15 years old (1910). From then on up until his death (1976), Papatsonis made clear his deep wish to approach Christianity through literature. As far as his published work is concerned, Papatsonis released three poetic collections (Eklogi A΄ in 1934, Ursa Minor in 1944 and Eklogi B΄ in 1962), three books –one about the spiritual, ascetic life on Mount Athos (Askisi ston Atho, 1963), one with cultural issues (Moldovalachica tu mithu, 1965) and one dedicated to the American poet Edgar Allan Poe (O Tetraperatos Cosmos, B΄, 1976)- and two compilations of his critical work during 1927-1972 (O Tetraperatos Cosmos, A΄, 1966 and Opu in kipos, 1972). Despite all these volumes, numerous poems and several of his papers remain unknown to scholars, as they were not included in any of his collections and remained scattered in different types of newspapers and journals of the 20th century. This dissertation enriches Papatsonis’ poetic corpus and attempts to examine some of its aspects. In the first part I attempt to understand the conditions under which he developed his poetics. Papatsonis from his very beginning refused to conform with the traditional poetic norm of the early 20th century and made use of free verse in 1920, while at the same time he tried to align the morphology, expression and style of his poetry with the principles of modernism. In the second part I managed to gather a large number of Papatsonis’ critically acclaimed reviews and studies. All of these writings helped me to examine thoroughly the critical discourse he articulated from the 1910s to his death in 1976 in his attempt to clarify his views on modern greek literature of 19th and first half of the 20th century, as well as to ‘listen’ to the historical changes that influenced its development. Thanks to his broad education, critical sensitivity and insight, Papatsonis expressed his opinions about almost all of the issues of greek literary life, from the ‘hot’ issue of the greek diglossia and the conflict between the admirers of the vernacular language and the archaists to the controversial, as a result of its political attributes, question of ‘ellinikotita’ (greekness) in art. The religious element is never absent from Papatsonis’ vision, and it is very interesting to follow the way in which this aspect is consistent with his thought. His reflection on Christianity plays a crucial role in all of his texts, regardless their main topic. In other words, Papatsonis’ criticism is largely triggered by a Christian ars poetica. Finally, in the third part, I attempt a systematic examination of Papatsonis’ reception by the critics from the second decade of 20th century to the present. In fact, as Papatsonis’ poetry was full of religious components, it often provoked feelings of awkwardness to his critics. His idiosyncratic Christian identity, moving between Catholicism and Orthodoxy, as well as his stormy relationship with the core of “the generation of the 30’s” (George Seferis, Andreas Karantonis and George Theotokas) seemed to have been obstacles to the recognition of his modernism. The latter were vastly attributed to Seferis’ collection Strofi (1931), which made sensation among the critics of the time and was recorded in modern greek letters as the kick-off of greek modernism, the advent of which was formalized with Seferis’ poetic synthesis Mithistorima (1935), written in free verse. This perception prevailed until the 1970s, when Alexander Argiriou laid the foundations for the discovery of the innovative dimensions of Papatsonis’ poetry, which are still being examined by the scholars until today.
Advisor name: Βογιατζόγλου, Αθηνά
Examining committee: Βογιατζόγλου, Αθηνά
Παπαθεοδώρου, Ιωάννης
Καργιώτης, Δημήτριος
Βαρελάς, Λάμπρος
Δημητρακάκης, Ιωάννης
Καγιαλής, Τάκης
Λέτσιος, Βασίλειος
Publishing department/division: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Φιλοσοφική Σχολή. Τμήμα Φιλολογίας
Publishing institution: uoi
Number of pages: 2 τ. ( 385; 331 σ.)
Appears in Collections:Διδακτορικές Διατριβές

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