Functional anatomy of the mandibular nerve: consequences of nerve injury and entrapment (Journal article)

Piagkou, M./ Demesticha, T./ Skandalakis, P./ Johnson, E. O.

Various anatomic structures including bone, muscle, or fibrous bands may entrap and potentially compress branches of the mandibular nerve (MN). The infratemporal fossa is a common location for MN compression and one of the most difficult regions of the skull to access surgically. Other potential sites for entrapment of the MN and its branches include, a totally or partially ossified pterygospinous or pterygoalar ligament, a large lamina of the lateral plate of the pterygoid process, the medial fibers of the lower belly of the lateral pterygoid muscle and the inner fibers of the medial pterygoid muscle. The clinical consequences of MN entrapment are dependent upon which branches are compressed. Compression of the MN motor branches can lead to paresis or weakness in the innervated muscles, whereas compression of the sensory branches can provoke neuralgia or paresthesia. Compression of one of the major branches of the MN, the lingual nerve (LN), is associated with numbness, hypoesthesia, or even anesthesia of the tongue, loss of taste in the anterior two thirds of the tongue, anesthesia of the lingual gums, pain, and speech articulation disorders. The aim of this article is to review, the anatomy of the MN and its major branches with relation to their vulnerability to entrapment. Because the LN expresses an increased vulnerability to entrapment neuropathies as a result of its anatomical location, frequent variations, as well as from irregular osseous, fibrous, or muscular irregularities in the region of the infratemporal fossa, particular emphasis is placed on the LN.
Institution and School/Department of submitter: Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Επιστημών Υγείας. Τμήμα Ιατρικής
Keywords: Atrophy/etiology/pathology,Axons/pathology,Humans,Lingual Nerve/anatomy & histology/pathology,*Mandibular Nerve/anatomy & histology/pathology,Motor Neurons/pathology,Muscle Weakness/etiology/*pathology/physiopathology,Nerve Compression Syndromes/complications/*pathology/physiopathology,Neuralgia/etiology/*pathology/physiopathology,Paresis/etiology/*pathology/physiopathology,Paresthesia/etiology/*pathology/physiopathology,Trigeminal Nerve Injuries
ISSN: 1098-2353
Appears in Collections:Άρθρα σε επιστημονικά περιοδικά ( Ανοικτά)

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