Summer exposure assessment of Cu and Zn in drinking water in Shanghai, China (Journal article)
Xu, P./ Lagos, G./ Huang, S. B./ Wang, Z. J.
Daily exposures to chemicals in drinking water are of importance in risk assessment to human health. However, exposure assessment of chemicals in drinking water has seldom been performed in China. Until now, no such a detailed exposure assessment was reported in China. The aim of the present paper is to describe the scenes of daily exposure to Cu and Zn in drinking water by the population of Shanghai, China in the summer of 2003. A total of 163 volunteers and/or homes were selected to be statistically representative of the population of Shanghai, China. The Modified Consumption Habit Exposure Model (CHEM) method combined with the measurement of metals concentrations in stagnant water and actual ingested water was used to describe the daily exposure. The Consumption Habit Exposure Model method results showed that water consumption ranged from 1.7 to 2.2 L/day, varied with different age, gender and work location groups. Chemical results showed that the average Cu and Zn concentrations in stagnant water were much higher than those in actual ingested water (13.5 mu g/L and 1.55 mg/L vs. 10.8 mu g/L and 0.29 mg/L). Exposure assessment results also showed that volunteers had the highest exposure from the time of after breakfast to before dinner, and had the lowest exposure during the 15 minutes before sleeping. It was also showed that there were few volunteers directly exposed to stagnant water, although six hours stagnant time can be reached in most of the homes in Shanghai in the morning. The mean daily exposures to Cu and Zn were 0.36 mu g/kg/day and 0.01 mg/kg/day. Daily intakes of Cu and Zn from drinking water by Shanghai people were 1.8% and 4.4% of the World Health Organization recommendations for minimum total intakes of Cu and Zn for adults, respectively.
|Institution and School/Department of submitter:||Πανεπιστήμιο Ιωαννίνων. Σχολή Επιστημών Υγείας. Τμήμα Ιατρικής|
|Keywords:||health risk assessment,exposure assessment,drinking water,metals,copper,pesticides|
|Link:||<Go to ISI>://000240750300003|
|Appears in Collections:||Άρθρα σε επιστημονικά περιοδικά ( Ανοικτά)|
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